L’arrivée de la 5G en France encouragée


Les premiers services 5G ont démarré dans de nombreux pays en 2019 et on s’attend à ce qu’ils soient largement disponibles d’ici 2025. Marseille pourra-t-elle en bénéficier? C’est ce qu’espère Daniel Sperling, Adjoint Au Maire de Marseille, Innovation et Développement par le Numérique.


L’accès sans fil fixe pour les particuliers et les services mobiles à large bande améliorés sont les premières applications utilisant de nouveaux téléphones 5G, tablettes, modems d’accès sans fil et points chauds.


Les principaux avantages des appareils 5G seront des vitesses nettement plus rapides dans l’accès aux données, le téléchargement et la diffusion de contenu en continu. De plus, les appareils 5G auront une puissance de calcul accrue et profiteront d’une latence plus faible, ce qui signifie que les appareils bénéficieront de connexions virtuellement instantanées au réseau, ainsi que d’une plus grande connectivité lorsqu’ils sont en déplacement grâce à l’utilisation d’une commande avancée du faisceau d’antenne.


Les téléphones mobiles, tablettes et points d’accès équipés d’une connectivité 3G, 4G et 5G ont été lancés en 2019. Néanmoins, Daniel Sperling indique qu’en France les appareils adaptés à la 5G ne sont pas encore répandus.


« La plupart des opérateurs intégreront d’abord les réseaux 5G aux réseaux 4G existants pour assurer une connexion continue », souligne Daniel Sperling.

Un réseau mobile a deux composantes principales, le ‘Réseau d’accès radio’ et le ‘Réseau central’.

Le réseau d’accès radio – se compose de divers types d’installations, y compris des petites cellules, des tours, des mâts et des systèmes domestiques et intérieurs spécialisés qui relient les utilisateurs mobiles et les appareils sans fil au réseau central principal.

Les petites cellules seront une caractéristique majeure des réseaux 5G, en particulier sur les nouvelles fréquences millimétriques (mmWave) où la portée de connexion est très courte. Pour assurer une connexion continue, les petites cellules seront distribuées en grappes en fonction de l’endroit où les utilisateurs ont besoin d’une connexion qui complétera le réseau macro qui fournit une couverture étendue.

Les macrocellules 5G utiliseront des antennes MIMO (entrées multiples, sorties multiples) qui ont plusieurs éléments ou connexions pour envoyer et recevoir plus de données simultanément. L’avantage pour les utilisateurs est qu’un plus grand nombre de personnes peuvent se connecter simultanément au réseau et maintenir un débit élevé.  Lorsque les antennes MIMO utilisent un très grand nombre d’éléments d’antenne, on les appelle souvent  » MIMO massives « , la taille physique est cependant similaire à celle des antennes de station de base 3G et 4G existantes.

Le réseau central – est le réseau mobile d’échange et de données qui gère toutes les connexions mobiles voix, données et Internet. Pour la 5G, le  » réseau central  » est en train d’être repensé pour mieux s’intégrer aux services Internet. La mise en place de la 5G va permettre de réduire les temps de réponse et la latence.

Daniel Sperling

Network Slicing

Il permet de segmenter le réseau de manière intelligente pour une industrie, une entreprise ou une application particulière. Par exemple, les services d’urgence pourraient fonctionner sur une tranche de réseau indépendamment des autres utilisateurs.

Virtualisation des fonctions réseau (NVF)

C’est st la capacité d’instancier les fonctions réseau en temps réel à n’importe quel endroit désiré de la plate-forme cloud de l’opérateur. Les fonctions réseau qui fonctionnaient auparavant sur du matériel dédié, par exemple un pare-feu et un cryptage dans les locaux commerciaux, peuvent désormais fonctionner sur un logiciel sur une machine virtuelle.

Daniel Sperling souligne que NVF est cruciale pour permettre l’efficacité de la vitesse et l’agilité nécessaires à la prise en charge de nouvelles applications métier et constitue une technologie importante pour un cœur prêt pour la 5G.

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